1 Potassium dervives its name from the practice of extracting the ash of burnt wood from iron pots, ie “pot ash”.
2 Potassium burns with a lilac-colored flame when exposed to air and water.
3 Potassium is present in nature only as ionic salts because it is highly reactive in its pure state.
4 One of the major electrolytes in the body, along with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), potassium is the predominant positive ion inside cells.
5Potassium compounds include baking soda (potassium bicarbonate), a leavening agent, and cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), a stabilizing agent for eggs and cream.
Potassium is the third major plant and crop nutrient – others are nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P), which are essential for the growth and development of plants.
1 Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.
2 It accounts for 75% of the normal matter of the universe.
3 Hydrogen fuel cells: The chemical fusion of hydrogen gas and oxygen can power everything from electric cars, NAS spacecraft, generating clean air and water as by-product instead of pollution.
4 Hydrogen bomb: "H-Bombs" are the most destructive weapons humanity has created to date, containing the explosive power equivalent to 50,000 tons of TNT. They are activated in a three-phase process which includes the nuclear fusion of two hydrogen heavy isotopes.
5 Hydrogen is the only element that can exist without neutrons (protium)
6 Hydrogen is the lightest element with an atomic mass of 1.008 amu
1 Neon glows bright red in gas discharge tubes, a sealed tube with two (or more) electrodes that has been filled with a gas at less than atmospheric pressure. Voltage applied to the electrodes causes the electrons to temporarily enter an excited state (i.e. an orbital of higher energy). Neon emits different wavelengths of visible light as the electrons transition black to its lowest-energy, ground state.
2 Neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe but scarce on Earth
3 Neon is often used in the production of neon signs.
4 Neon is also used in lightning arresters, which protect electrical equipment in power systems from lightning-associated damage.
5 Neon does not easily react and form compounds since it is a noble gas. The likelihood of elements reacting with one another is determined by their electron configurations. Noble gases have completely filled electron orbitals, which is the lowest-energy and most stable configuration an atom may have.
1 Approximately 95% of all meteorites comprise of iron-nickel (FeNi) metal
2 Nickel is one of four ferromagnetic elements (displays strong magnetic properties) at room temperature – others are iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and gadolinium (Gd)
3 17% of women and 3% of men in the general population are allergic to nickel, a symptom that is often associated with everyday items such as earrings, belt buckles, coins, and eyeglass frames
4 Radioactive isotope nickel-63 has a half-life of 100.1-years, and is used in voltage regulators and surge protectors in electronics such as cellphones and GPS devices.
5 Nickel is predominantly used to produce alloys (a material composed of at least two metals) and rarely used as pure nickel metal. Nickel alloys are known for being corrosion and heat resistant.
6 Nickel electroplating: Use of an electric current to deposit a thin layer of nickel onto metals, such as that of automotive wheels, truck exhausts, and light fixtures. It accounts for 9% of primary nickel use
7 Stainless steel: Manufacturing steel accounts for 65% of primary nickel use. It is 100% recyclable and does not lose any of its original properties. Approximately 90% is recycled into new products worldwide